Galileo: A Mission to Jupiter circa 1984 NASA JPL 5min

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more at Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). ) Galileo was an unmanned NASA spacecraft which studied the planet Jupiter and its moons. Named after the Renaissance astronomer Galileo Galilei, it was launched on October 18, 1989, by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission. Galileo arrived at Jupiter on December 7, 1995, via gravitational assist flybys of Venus and Earth, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. Despite suffering from antenna problems, Galileo conducted the first asteroid flyby near 951 Gaspra and discovered the first asteroid moon, Dactyl, around the asteroid 243 Ida. It furthermore launched the first probe into Jupiter's atmosphere. The mission's total cost was estimated at approximately US$1.4 billion. The spacecraft measured the atmospheric composition of Jupiter and directly observed ammonia clouds, which seem to be created by an outflow from the lower depths of Jupiter's atmosphere. Galileo also registered Io's volcanism and the plasma interactions between its and Jupiter's atmospheres. Other studies gave support for the popular theory of liquid oceans under the icy surface of Europa. There were also indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto, while Ganymede was shown to possess a magnetic field. New evidence was also found for the existence of exospheres around Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Galileo furthermore discovered that Jupiter's faint ring system consists of dust from impacts on the four small inner moons. The extent and structure of Jupiter's magnetosphere was also mapped. In 1994, Galileo provided the only direct observation of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9's impact into the atmosphere of Jupiter. On September 21, 2003, after 14 years in space and 8 years in the Jovian system, Galileo's mission was terminated by sending the orbiter into Jupiter's atmosphere at a speed of over 48 kilometres (30 mi) per second, to avoid any chance of it contaminating local moons with terrestrial bacteria. Of particular concern was the ice-crusted moon Europa, which, due to Galileo's findings, scientists now suspect harbors a potentially life-supporting subsurface saltwater ocean. Galileo's launch had been significantly delayed. Early plans saw it being launched by Space Shuttle Columbia on what was then codenamed STS-23 in January 1982, but delays in the development of the Space Shuttle allowed more time for development of the probe. Once it was complete, its launch was scheduled for STS-61-G on-board Atlantis in 1986. It was to use the Centaur-G liquid hydrogen-fueled booster stage for a direct trajectory to Jupiter. However, the mission was further delayed by the hiatus in launches that occurred after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. New safety protocols introduced as a result of the disaster prohibited the use of the Centaur-G stage on the Shuttle, forcing Galileo to use a lower-powered Inertial Upper Stage solid-fuel booster. The mission was re-profiled to use several gravitational slingshots, referred to as the "VEEGA" or Venus Earth Earth Gravity Assist maneuvers, to provide the additional velocity required to reach its destination... The Jet Propulsion Laboratory built the Galileo spacecraft and managed the Galileo mission for NASA. Germany supplied the propulsion module. NASA's Ames Research Center managed the probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company. At launch, the orbiter and probe together had a mass of 2,564 kilograms (5,653 pounds) and stood seven metres tall. One section of the spacecraft rotated at 3 rpm, keeping Galileo stable and holding six instruments that gathered data from many different directions, including the fields and particles instruments... ...Galileo's high-gain antenna failed to fully deploy after its first flyby of Earth... Fortunately, Galileo possessed an additional low-gain antenna that was capable of transmitting information back to Earth... the high-gain antenna was to have transmitted at 134 kilobits per second... Through the implementation of sophisticated technologies, the arraying of several Deep Space Network antennas and sensitivity upgrades to the receivers used to listen to Galileo's signal, data throughput was increased to a maximum of 160 bits per second. By further using data compression, the effective data rate could be raised to 1000 bits per second...

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