Grace Hui Chin Lin (PhD/Master of Science) 林慧菁教授於政大外文系

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Pragmatics ( Requests) 林慧菁哲學博士於國立政治大學外國語文學系演說語用學:世界各國(Speech Act: 請求)之對話特徵(跨文化語言學研究:要求於各國之既定習性) Request Speech Acts by Grace Hui Chin Lin Request language is a significant Pragmatics Philosophy, since asking help in the modern competitive society is not effortless but demanding. In request language, there are "supportive move" and "downloader" to achieve inquiry from interlocutors. This study investigates patterns of request discourses by the several strategies. For example, "Supportive move" can be a reason of request, which purposes on interlocutors' listener being motivated and admit the request. Moreover, the downloader can be a "politeness markers", which may raise the possibilities of approval in the request speech act. Beside, in different types of request speech act, the discourses can be created according to the relationships of the listeners as well as (the people who are requested) and the speakers (the people who request). Their relationship can be categorized into 1. intimate 2. Friends & acquaintances, and 3. strangers. According to 3 relationship genres, interlocutors talk differently by their high or low social positions. In request speech acts, functions of "saving face" and "free option" as well as ways for building politeness atmosphere are also important. A listener may feel much better to accept the request, because the speakers concern about his/her feeling. If the above request sentence is not accompanied by the external modifiers (supportive moves), it sounds rude and impolite. This study was conducted in a graduate students' Pragmatics course, where 16 master and PhD students from Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and America had mentioned their suggestions for making appropriate requests. From a view in international situation, they recommended how a request can be accomplished in an appropriate way. The results are displayed by numerous sets of discourses. Key words: Speech act, Supportive Move, Downloader, Politeness Markers, Interlocutor Relationship. 請求言語行為 講者林慧菁 請求語言是語用學中的重要議題(沃爾特斯,2006年),以苛刻的語言求他人幫助,在­競爭激烈的現代社會,不見得能容易達成。在請求的語言中,包括有「支持語」和「妥協語­」。本研究探討國際間請求話語的常見規則,介紹幾種重要的禮貌請求策略。例如,「支持­語」可以是請求的原因,它能提升聽者接受請求的動機。此外,「禮貌標記」 也是請求言語行為當中重要的一環。 此外,在不同類型的請求語言中,根據聽者與說話者社會地位高低,它們的關係可以分為1­親密2朋友/熟人3陌生人,三種關係對話者談論的內容,各有不同的氣質與特色。 在請求言語行為中,「保留面子」和「自由選擇」,以及如何營造禮貌氣氛的策略也很重要­。聽眾可能會因覺得請求人關注他/她的感覺,而接受請求。反之,如果上述要求沒有使用­外部修飾語(支持語),則整個對話聽起來可能粗魯無禮。本研究是在一個研究所語用學課­程中完成的,其中學生來自韓國,台灣,中國、、伊朗、土耳其和美國。16個碩博學生提­出他們的語用學建議。以國際友人的觀點,他們敘述請求可以如何適當地完成。本研究的結­果以數組對話展示出請求言語行為之通則。 The speech act paper abstract was published at Chengchi University. It is about speaking habits of diverse nations, including Turkey, Korea, America and Taiwan. Since the two Asian speakers before me, speaking in native-like English, I decided to give this lecture in Chinese. The background music is provided by my sister, Lin Helen. It is music of my grandmother's hometown, near Isreal.

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